Brick in the interior: from the Gothic castle to the loft
In a brick rhythm
Brickwork in the interior has become a fashionable “chip” after the current trend is to convert old industrial buildings into homes. To cover with brick wall trim of such structure and difficult and costly, and even blasphemous, because you will lose one of the main distinguishing features that create the very “industrial aesthetics”. So with the mid-twentieth century fashion entered the rough brick walls in the interior.
To purchase premises in the old industrial and commercial buildings, not all could afford them, and to bring to the interior a fresh approach wanted. Realized the idea with brick walls by creating a not particularly realistic imitations: one papered wall paper Wallpaper brick, while others were accepted for the painting, depicting on the walls brickwork.
By the end of the last century, there are more opportunities for the realization of design ideas, and it is, of course, reflected in the trends of interior fashion. “If you have the opportunity to create almost a real brick masonry in the interior, it means we have to create it” — probably thought about so many designers and went to work. Brick in the interior of urban and suburban housing has become associated not only with the aesthetics of industrial areas, but also with other styles and directions.
You like the idea of a brick wall in the interior of your home? You are fascinated by the “brick” rhythm and brutality of the “brick” Continue reading
The culture of Western Europe in the Middle ages
For the first time the term “middle ages” were used by the Italian humanists in the fifteenth century calling so the time that separates them from the era of classical antiquity. The beginning of the middle ages is 476 – the year of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, ending up in different historiographical schools are considered to be either 1492 – discovery of America by Columbus, or 1517 – start of Protestant reformation in Germany, or 1640 – beginning of the bourgeois revolution in England. The conquest of the territory of the Western Roman Empire by barbarians in the V century led to the decline of ancient culture. The barbarians destroyed the city, destroyed the monuments of ancient art, library. The period from the end of IV century on the eighth century is referred to in the historiography of the “dark ages”, or “the period of great resettlement of peoples”.
The art of the Middle ages very different from the ancient: instead of perfect harmony – the appeal in the first place to the spiritual world, the contradiction between reality and the spiritual ideal.
The Christian religion has had a dominant influence on the development of medieval art (during the V-XI centuries. was the adoption of Christianity by virtually all the peoples of Europe). Christianity denied the ancient harmony of body and spirit, human and the earthly world. The main attention of the artists of the middle ages gave the world the hereafter, the art was considered as the Bible for the illiterate, as a means of familiarizing Continue reading
The most mysterious places on Earth
Our world is full of mysteries, which is already many decades no one can solve. On site there are amazing places where there are mysterious accidents are mysterious buildings and unexplained characters, the appearance of which remains a mystery for many centuries. Many such places have been carefully researched by scientists and archaeologists, but these locations are so old that it is still not clear where they originate.
One of those mysterious structures on Earth – Stonehenge . located on Salisbury plain in Wiltshire, England. This is the most mysterious monument in the world is excited and, at the same time, a great deal of controversy among scholars and historians. Studies of this object lasted from the middle Ages.
Stonehenge looks like a stone building near London and consists of 56 small funeral “Aubrey holes” arranged in the shape of a circle. Presumably, this structure is only a remnant of a vast monument, which was badly destroyed by time, wars and disasters.
The pyramids and the Sphinx
Some scientists believe that Stonehenge was a great monument, located near the place of burial, and it was built by highly advanced ancient society, the other side argues that this old building Continue reading
Ancient fish bone from China
Chinese paleontologists have discovered in Yunnan province (Yunnan) in the sediments belonging to the upper Silurian, in the layers of the age 418-419 million years, the fossilized remains of fish. The study findings showed that the fish belongs to the class of bony fish (Osteichthyes) and combines the characteristics of two subclasses – the ray-finned (Actinopterigii) and lobe-finned (Sarcopterygii). Paleontologists have named the fish Guiu (Guiyu oneiros).
The Chinese paleontologist Zhu Min (Min Zhu) and his colleagues from the Institute of vertebrate paleontology and paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP), China Academy of Sciences), devoted to the study of this fish, published in the Journal Nature.
According to modern views, from bony fish were almost all vertebrates, including, eventually, humans. By the way, do not confuse bone and bony fishes. We are all familiar bony fishes (Teleostei) arose in the Mesozoic and belong to the subclass of ray-finned fishes.
To the descendants of the ancient bony fish scientists classify all living clustertech animals except cartilaginous fishes – sharks, rays and chimeras. They stemmed from the evolutionary tree earlier. And here we are, in principle, can be considered distant descendants of the Silurian bony fish.
Unfortunately, the early stage of this evolutionary process is still not well understood., Continue reading
Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome
Objective: to acquaint students with the architecture of Ancient Rome, the varieties of buildings and their purpose, continue to develop cognitive abilities of students, the ability to work with sources of information, highlight the main, to raise interest, a sense of respect and admiration for Roman building technology and architecture.
New words . forum (location of architectural structures in a strict order on a huge quadrangular areas); aqueducts (water pipes); viaducts (rock bridges); a pilaster (a flat vertical projection on the surface of the walls); caissons (square indentations, which is divided by a hemispherical ceiling of a dome), Thermae (public baths).
The course of the lesson
I. Organizational moment
Art culture of Ancient Rome left mankind a rich legacy.
The theme of our lesson “the Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome”. In class we will learn the architecture of Ancient Rome, the varieties of buildings and their purpose, construction and material innovations in architecture.
II. New theme
The architecture of Ancient Rome as distinctive Continue reading