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The birth of the style. Gothic culture was an expression of all the social changes of the era of middle Ages. A qualitatively new phenomenon was the growth and prosperity of cities turning into centers of cultural, religious, political and economic life. In cities created secular schools, appeared the first universities. A Grand artistic synthesis of the Gothic style came to fruition in its main phenomenon – the city Cathedral.
Thinkers of the 12th and 13th centuries among the inferior “mechanical” arts not by chance the first raised to the rank of “free” architecture. Possessing extensive knowledge of the architect in the manner of scientists scholastics called “doctor.” With architecture that has retained its leading style-forming role, began turning to a new style, then spread to sculpture and painting.
The Cathedral, being the personification of the “divine universe”, was the most important public place of the city. Before the churches were made by the preachers, held discussions with Professor and students. Conversion of a closed, thick-walled, serf type of temple required the conditions of urban life. Unlike the Romanesque Church with its clear forms of the Gothic Cathedral is vast, often asymmetrical, each of the individual facades. The wall is not felt, as it would not. Instead, the “inscrutable forest” of supports, and infinitely complex, changing with open forms. Gothic building doesn’t stand still, as Romanesque, it is born and grows in the eyes of the viewer. But for all the seeming opposites of Romanesque and Gothic architecture in the basis they related. The individual parts of Gothic design were not innovations, but, combined, they received a different quality of sound.
The ethereal and dreamlike quality of Gothic’s Cathedral has a rational basis: it follows from the timber frame system of construction, which became the most important movement of Gothic. The base frame structure is cross ribbed vault (the ribs is called the protruding ribs of the arch, forming its arches). Innovation of Gothic architecture was the consistent use of Lancet arches, with less side thrust, allowing to expand the blocked area. The working part of the architecture with ribbed vaults, focusing the pressure at certain points, become a place to stand, not a wall. Inside the building is the arcade of columns, outside – the buttresses are vertical ridges that increase its stability. In cathedrals, where the middle nave higher than the side, used the connecting arches – flying buttresses, which were thrown outside from the vault of the main nave buttresses on the side. The body of the building, fastened the skeleton of the pointed arch, piers, flying buttresses, flying buttresses, was easy, got the opportunity to grow rapidly upwards. In the Gothic cathedrals based on the idea of infinite development, not by chance they were built by many generations.
Gothic stained glass Windows. A special role in the architecture began to play a light. Huge Windows turned the wall into a luminous barrier, stained glass and monumental painting of colored glass. Stained glass Windows, pierced by sun rays create a wonderful radiance of their colors. The image on the stained glass Windows are the technical requirements of a mosaic of large pieces of colored glass. United lead bands, they are angular, faceted shape.
Stained glass, almost colorless on the outside, revealed their magic in the interior. The sun oriented to the East, the first altar was adorned with shining, radiant colors. During the day the stained glass transformed the light traveled through the temple, illuminating the evening in the rose the Western portal. A bright glow glasses in Sunny day gave way to cloudy weather with a bluish shimmer. Stained glass Windows, especially round the rose – window of the Western portals was considered the pride of many cathedrals. Their creation was contributed from the kings and artisans.