The development of Roman architecture is divided into two main period . Republican and Imperial .
For the period from IV century until 30 BC, the Roman Republic from small city-States turned into a global slave state. The capital of Rome became a city of million where converged the threads of economic and political life of the conquered territories. Extremely complicated structure of the state, for the management and protection of which required a complex administrative and military apparatus. There were many cities and military camps, built military installations, fortresses, bridges and roads . Extensive trade and seafaring has resulted in the construction of harbors, warehouses, markets, shops, buildings for commercial transactions . The need of cities in water are met through the aqueducts). Complicated social life of cities. Along with religious buildings came the development of a town square forums). theatres and amphitheatres). circuses). term). Buildings were erected for the needs of government agencies and local administrations: the office, archives, Basilica ) for meetings of judges and other meetings. Was built memorial buildings and triumphal arches, columns, mausoleums). tomb.
Followed the Republican to the Imperial period (30 BC – V century ad) is characterized by an even greater growth of slavery, large scale predatory wars and enrichment of the Roman nobility. With the centralization of power has evolved the cult of the Emperor and the glorification of his personality through art and monumental architecture. The latter increasingly loses the traits of democracy, dominated by pomp, pageantry .
Special importance was given to the construction of drowning in the luxury of palaces and grandiose public buildings and complexes forums, amphitheatres, baths . designed for large capacity. They were intended not only for nobility, but for thousands of parasitical plebeians, who demanded “bread and circuses” . Next to the grandiose Imperial buildings spontaneously grew close living quarters with houses, slums for the urban poor and slaves. The architecture of the Empire reflected the acute contradictions of the Roman slave system.