The defenses of Novgorod
The defenses of Novgorod
The appearance of the first fortress in Veliky Novgorod dates back to the mid 11th century. Built the fortress was situated on a tiny hill, between two small ravines in the place where now is located the Cathedral of St. Sophia. During the reign of Novgorod princes Mstislav Vladimirovich and Vladimir Yaroslavovich (11-12 century), the Kremlin has expanded considerably and became of what we see today. From that distant time before we got heavy rollers, which in the late 15th century, were built towers and stone walls according to the Italian sample.
The length of the walls of the Kremlin – 1350 m, and the thickness of the walls is 4 m. Since the construction of the Kremlin was twelve towers, but only nine survived. There is a tower, which significantly protrudes outside the wall is the Pokrovskaya tower, which overlooks the outdoor vulnerable side. For this reason it has three-meter-high walls, and the facades have exactly 55 loopholes. Located near Zlatoust tower, which is notable for the fact that in the 17th century it became a prison, which explains its current name the Prison.
In the Kremlin there are two absolutely not typical for Novgorod the Great round tower. The first is the Metropolitan, which until the 17th century was called “Round”, and the second is Theodore, which received its name from the nearby Church, built in memory of the deceased brother of Alexander Nevsky – Fyodor who was soon canonized.
In Addition To The Kremlin in the 16th century was the place to be three more defensive line of the city of Novgorod: Large earth city, earth Small town and Archbishop’s courtyard, which was a residence of the head of the feudal Republic of Novgorod – Archbishop.
A large earthen city or Burg was considered the largest ring of fortifications, which covers almost the entire city – Shopping and Sofia. Until the 14th century permanent fortifications along the perimeter of the city was due to the constant changing of the borders of Novgorod Posad. During the 10th and 11th centuries the border slightly expanded mainly along the coasts, and in the late 11th – early 12th centuries there has been a rapid development of spaces that were far removed from the shores of the Magi. If organized enemy siege, were erected temporary FORTS or by the attackers, or around the entire town. In 1372-1392, lining up a permanent capacity in remote streets and all. For this reason, in the places where he lived better off the population, were erected stone walls, and in those places where most of the population was poor earthworks.
In the 16th century in Novgorod there was a Small earthen city, the construction of which was carried out by Ivan the terrible during 1582-1583. The small town consisted of 8 wooden towers, which were located on the earthen shaft, repeating the line of the Kremlin walls; in front of him was a deep ditch. The total length of the Small city was 984 fathoms, or 2 km In 1611, during the occupation of Novgorod, the Swedish army almost completely destroyed the Small earthen city, and restored he was only 1633.
After the high-profile defeat at Narva during the great Northern war, Czar Peter I adopted the decision on strengthening the North-Western cities and fortresses. In the early 18th century to strengthen the defense of the Kremlin in Novgorod, in the place of the Small earthen city has built a system of earthworks, which consisted of six bastions and the adjoining curtains. After the victorious war of the North, Peter the great decided to build a new capital of Russia in the former vodskaya Pyatina of Novgorod city. As the prosperity of St. Petersburg quickly lost its main value and gradually faded Novgorod, which not long ago was Great – therefore, lost their positions and the Small Earthen city. Ramparts and bastions were hidden in 1820. Today from the bastions in Veliky Novgorod have been preserved only remnants of two of them: the North, located on the wise men and called the Nicholas and South, are also on the Magus, but only from the opposite side of the Kremlin and Spassky or called Catherine hill.