The book in stone
The book in stone.
The architect of the new Cathedral of Rheims was erected a Grand structure, the mainstream at this time in Europe the Gothic style. This name, sneering at its core, was born in the XVI century in Italy, where the medieval culture was treated as a wild, barbaric. By the way, is ready, warlike people, wandering through Europe in the beginning of the first Millennium, had been long gone. However, the name “Gothic” . “Gothic culture” will forever remain in the history of art.
The emergence of a new style connected with the change of the attitude of medieval man, with his new view of himself, his place in the world, the relationship with religion. Church doctrine remains fundamental to the lives of people this time, but the texts of the sacred books now often receive new interpretations. Religious teachings arise, different from the main, dogmatic faith. In many cities of Europe appear the universities, where young people not only attain knowledge, but attempt to “find the truth” . such concern is important for the public life of concepts like “power,” “wealth” “freedom” “equality” . Time of conservatism, mental stagnation is over. Begins “fermentation of minds” .
A different order of life, of course, had to Express themselves in art. Its visible expression was the Gothic Cathedral. “The whole era that can be called the era of Gothic cathedrals,” says the academician M. V. Alpatov .
In terms of the arch of a Gothic Cathedral represents two intersecting criss-cross arches. Such constructive decision and allowed the Gothic Cathedral to become delicate, full of light, air, soaring. Festive, elegant, bringing a joyful attitude to the Gothic Cathedral was to the people of that time a real encyclopedia, “the book of life”!
This book was meant to tell the illiterate people (literacy rate in medieval Europe was extremely low) about the Christian teachings about good and evil, to teach the basics of morality and ethics. What is the language of this stone book how she refers to his “readers”? Note that the role of the text here has played the sculptural image.
It is the sculpture was chosen by scientists by the Church fathers for doing endless preaching of Christian truth because of its clarity, clarity. In Church circles there was a certain justification for the introduction of sculptural images in the architecture of the Cathedral. She allegedly necessary “for the simple rudeness, feelings for the sake of conservatism, the memory for fluctuation” . In this formula, there is a grain of arrogance scientist theologian to the mass of illiterate believers, but it very well explains the purpose of creating so many sculptures in a Gothic Church: to make rude, ignorant people about the heroism of motherhood of the virgin Mary, the suffering Christ, the betrayal of Judas in visible, clear and close images.
The birth of the sculptor. Part 3 of His miniature, chamber sculpture somewhat resembles wax dancers Degas, who at the time also a Place of mass murder in the United Aukstai-Paneriai South-Western suburb of Vilnius Paneriai, located on the left Bank of the Neris river, in the great Book in stone. Part 7 of the Sculptural decoration of the Gothic Cathedral included along with the Church canonized the stories and the Book in stone. Part 6 sculpture workshops, as in other medieval guilds, was dominated by a strict hierarchy.