Underground construction projects of antiquity.
Underground construction projects of antiquity.
A massive and complex cave complex in the Caucasus (V—XIII centuries) is carved into the cliff town of Vardzia, which builders have successfully resolved complex and difficult for the time task, as the supply of cave city water, natural light and air.
According to the testimony of Xenophon (IV—V centuries BC), the Armenians, who lived
cold plateau, lived in a vast dungeon where you fell on stairs and sloping passages. Later underground work in the Caucasus was conducted for the purpose of communication. So, in the work of Georgian writer Alexander Casbee mentions about the tunnel on the road from the North Caucasus to Georgia.
The limited technical means led to the fact that the construction of the most significant tunnels distant past lasted for decades and was regarded as a historical event. Thus, the construction of the tunnel under mount Salvino the last 5 km, was built by the ancient Romans, worked for 11 years 30 thousand people.
In ancient times, the tunnels were used for military purposes, such as tunneling under the walls of besieged cities to destroy walls and open access to the city. So, during the siege of Kazan by Russian troops on 31 August 1552 Ivan IV called razmisli (engineer) told me to .him to make a big tunnel under the city. Then, after learning that the Kazan residents take water from the key cache near one gate, to which go by underground, Ivan IV ordered the Alex Adasheva with a disciple of rozmyslal to make another attack on this indoor path from Darovoe stone tower. By 4 September 1552 undermining the hiding place was ready.
Here he writes about Kazan chronicler, “And pocasa nosey secretly kopati the deep trench for the Kazan deg. cunning povedenou they hastened to collect his forces in case of aidmi day, neatly and hastily, SANASA, izgotovit secret trieh ditches in the ground under vrednymi walls. “.
In the formed tunnel Ivan IV ordered to put barrels of gunpowder, after which the cache was blown up, and Russian troops, taking advantage of the hole made by the explosion, rushed to Kazan.
In 1657 rozmysel of Smolensk Vasily Asakeev tried to build an underwater tunnel under the river Moscow. Three times started o,h “podsobnoe thing to do on your vismara”, but due to the large water ingress attempt remained unfinished. It should be noted that the first underwater tunnel under the river Thames in London was begun by the construction in 1807 ie 150 years later after trying Basil Azancheev. In the Russian Chronicles of that time are such records: “podkopov want to find”, which indicates the underground mining in Ancient Russia.
The Builder of the greatest engineering works in the XVIII century K. D. Frolov was created the first underground hydropower installation on Zmeinogorsky mine (Altai). Is an engineering facility founded in the early 80-ies of the XVIII century was intended to lift mine and move the ore, as well as for drainage. In the underground chambers with height, reaching 21 m, was located a giant wooden wheel with a diameter of 17 m. the Total for all underground facilities was about 2.5 km away.
Among the first in the world of vehicle tunnels-channels deserve attention in France built a tunnel on the canal du MIDI Welcomes the tunnel at Saint-Contentcom channels. The tunnel Welcomes a length of 157 metres was built within 1679-1681, in the solid rock, the provision of which was made using mechanical steam blow – ers. Tranqua tunnel, located at a distance of about 130 km North-East of Paris, was built in the XVIII century in weak sandy soils, and was first applied to a wooden arch frame to maintain the production ceiling at penetration. Among the first of England is mentioned tunnels tunnel length 1.6 km, the construction of which is ascribed to the Builder of the canal bridge water James Brindley, But the first tunnel, which is mentioned in official English sources, is a tunnel’hair. Kastl, built for 1766-1777, on the Grand canal Rubbing. to connect the rivers Trent and Grain. The tunnel has a length of about 2.5 km with a relatively small cross section 2,74X3,66 m. In 1824, in parallel with this tunnel Thomas Telford built a second, larger tunnel.
Among the first English railway tunnels are noteworthy: a tunnel Box hill with a length of about 3 km, built by Brunneli in different soils (clay, limestone, sandy loam) and which cost the lives of hundreds of workers; Kilsby tunnel length of about 2.5 km, constructed by R. Stephenson on the railway from London to Birmingham, and finally, three tunnels (at Manchester, Birmingham and Sheffield railway), each with a length of 4.8 km, built in 1830
In 1843, after many attempts that lasted for 40 years, under the river Thames in London Brunneum was laid the first underwater tunnel with a length of 3.66 km For the construction of this tunnel he first used metal tunneling shield weighing 120 tons with 36 partitions, which was patented in 1818
During the construction of subway in Moscow discovered a number of underground structures that had obviously defensive value. The same underground structure found during excavations in Novgorod and other cities. So, in the Novgorod excavations in the area between the Kremlin wall and Saint Sophia bell tower were opened three underground chambers, United with Novgorod fortress, and served probably for military purposes. Preserved better than others is the biggest of the southern chamber has a size in plan 4,48×4,45 m and maximum height of 5,65 m. the Massive walls of the chamber, paved with slab of stone, interspersed with brick, have a thickness of 1.6 m. the Chamber is covered with a torispherical brick gadfly. It is arranged two doorways of a width of 1.7 and a height of 2.0 m. One of them leads into the second chamber and into the underground passage to the belfry. The walls were covered with plaster, partly preserved. The construction of a camera refers to the XVI century, i.e. the time of the construction of the Sofia belfry.