The mysteries of underground Moscow

Taisiya Belousova

P ozemny Moscow with its mystery arouses the interest of the General public. Recently there are articles on this topic. When getting acquainted with the most publications give the impression that their authors get their information about underground tunnels from adventure novels Gleb Alexeyev “Underground Moscow,” published in 1925. As agreed, the journalists tell of many kilometers of tunnels in which the three drove to the Kremlin Tsar Ivan the terrible, secret mazes, passing under the entire Central part of the capital, about the use of ancient underground galleries in the 1930-ies of the NKVD, etc, from article to article walk the same stories about Moscow caches

The mysteries of underground Moscow

 

“Militant pojemnik”

Underground Moscow with its mystery arouses the interest of the General public. Recently there are articles on this topic. When getting acquainted with the most publications give the impression that their authors get their information about underground tunnels from adventure novels Gleb Alexeyev “Underground Moscow,” published in 1925. As agreed, telling reporters many kilometers of tunnels in which the three drove to the Kremlin Tsar Ivan the terrible, secret mazes, passing under the entire Central part of the capital, about the use of ancient underground galleries in the 1930-ies of the NKVD, etc, from article to article walk the same stories about Moscow caches

What is catacomb Moscow and how it occurred, what structures lie beneath the earth and who investigated them? The answers to these questions the author tried to find in the Chronicles of ancient legends and documents, in the archives of historians and archaeologists in pre-revolutionary Newspapers and magazines. Contacted the author and to the legends and traditions, for checking them allowed the cavers to find some underground tunnels. Not forgotten were the testimonies of eyewitnesses. although many of them inspire doubt, and here’s why: for most witnesses any old tunnel – a mysterious underground passage. And only experts are able to attribute the discovery and determine exactly what it is – a secret passage or abandoned waste channel. Nevertheless, the book contains such information, because in the process of reconstruction of the city, some underground monuments of antiquity have been destroyed, access to other lost, and therefore valuable memories of those who happened to see them. Readers will be introduced to the versions of historians put forward in an attempt to find out the time of creation, the purpose and direction of an hiding place. Unfortunately, articles about the Moscow underground these versions are often presented as reality.

Caches and underground structures of the ancient Kremlin

Medieval Russian towns and fortresses have been unthinkable without the caches, the value of which is difficult to overestimate. Before the siege, the enemy first tried to find out about opening the gate

and water caches. And if it succeeded, the victory was largely predetermined. In the Izborsk chronograph, talking about the internecine fighting in Murom, the chronicler bitterly complained that “the Lithuanian people hiding place and took the castle of vaidosa and banners supplied and the cache sit down.” One of the first news about the construction of the hiding place came to us from the thirteenth century.

By decree of Prince Alexander Nevsky, who is concerned about strengthening the North-Western borders, the people of Pskov to Izborsk “the stone wall with stove, ucinila and rowy of itrisa under the city.”

In the next two centuries the development of underground military architecture is very prevented the Mongol-Tatar yoke. But in the XVI-XVII centuries the secret exits and hiding places water existed in almost all the castles and fortresses of Muscovy.

In the first half of the fourteenth century Moscow becomes the de facto capital of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, moved here from the Metropolitan clergy. Cares Grand Prince Ivan Danilovich Kalita in the years 1339-1340 settlement on the Borovitsky hill was surrounded by oak walls with towers. Tarasy

made skillful hortotaltime, was a reliable defense, however, frequent fires resulted in the strengthening in complete disrepair. When the Grand Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy in the years 1366-1368 built the white stone Kremlin. About the hiding places of these two fortresses there are no statements anywhere, but this does not mean, as if such did not exist. At the time, Moscow threatened Tver and Ryazan principalities, Lithuania and the Horde and the fortress at any time could be in a dense ring of enemy troops. It was to make the Moscow Governor to establish caches. It is most likely that the Kremlin, built on a high and dry hill, had a secret water tunnels to the river or to the Neglinnaya the Moscow river.

Caches and underground structures of the Kremlin cathedrals, palaces and other buildings

Journey into the underground of the Kremlin buildings the author proposes to start from the Cathedral square, where the majestic churches: the Dormition, Annunciation and Archangel. “Three churches, shrouded in mystery: three famous Kremlin Cathedral – like starozytny Easter cake with raisins, is provided with secrets” – wrote about them I. Y. Stelletsky.

What secrets kept by the ancient Kremlin cathedrals?

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