Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome
Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome
Objective: to acquaint students with the architecture of Ancient Rome, the varieties of buildings and their purpose, continue to develop cognitive abilities of students, the ability to work with sources of information, highlight the main, to raise interest, a sense of respect and admiration for Roman building technology and architecture.
New words . forum (location of architectural structures in a strict order on a huge quadrangular areas); aqueducts (water pipes); viaducts (rock bridges); a pilaster (a flat vertical projection on the surface of the walls); caissons (square indentations, which is divided by a hemispherical ceiling of a dome), Thermae (public baths).
The course of the lesson
I. Organizational moment
Art culture of Ancient Rome left mankind a rich legacy.
The theme of our lesson “the Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome”. In class we will learn the architecture of Ancient Rome, the varieties of buildings and their purpose, construction and material innovations in architecture.
II. New theme
The architecture of Ancient Rome as distinctive art, formed by the time of IV—I centuries BC, the Monuments of Ancient Rome now, even in the ruins captivate with its magnificence. The Romans ushered in a new era of world architecture in which the main place is belonged to public buildings.
In the development of artistic culture of Ancient Rome, there are three main periods
Important role in the development of the Roman state, culture belongs to the Etruscans (the tribes who lived on the territory of modern Tuscany). They were experienced farmers and skillful craftsmen. They built cities, had a regular layout, cobblestone streets), good Sewerage system, a lot of temples on stone foundations and palaces. Houses and palaces had a nice, comfortable layout consisting of rest rooms, for conversation, entertainment, and domestic use. Inside the houses were courtyards – garden with benches and a fountain, where the owner invited friends. The temples built in honor of the gods, for sacrifices to gods and rulers. The Etruscans created their order is Grand and monumental.
1. Roman Forum.
Here were held public meetings, resolved important issues of war and peace, of government, trade deals were concluded, listened to the proceedings, was full of passion… On the territory of the Forum there were many buildings, monuments and statues. The Forum began the important roads of the state, it converge the main streets of the city. The forum served as the center of social life and of everyday human communication evolved thematic communication, which bears all the hallmarks of what we today call forum. The most notable monument at the Forum was the 38-metre-high column of Trajan is Made of 20 blocks kalarskogo marble, has a height of 38 m (with pedestal) and a diameter of 4 meters Inside the column is hollow: it has a spiral staircase with 185 steps leading to the platform on the capitals. The monument weighs about 40 tons. The shaft of the column 23 times the spiral goes around the ribbon with a length of 190 m with reliefs depicting episodes of the war between Rome and Dacia. Was originally surmounted by eagle, later by a statue of Trajan. Instead, in 1588 Sixtus V established the statue of the Apostle Peter, which is on the column today. At the base of the column is a door leading into the hall, where were placed the Golden urns containing the ashes of Trajan and his wife Pompeii Dam.
2. Engineering structures.
Roman architecture has always sought to meet the practical needs of man. The Romans built new in those days engineering structures: pipelines (aqueducts) and huge stone bridges (viaducts), inside of which was hiding a lead and clay pipes supplying water to the city. Admired the construction of roads. Famous the Appian way is paved from Rome to Capua, beautifully paved with large, tightly fitting stones.
3. The Colosseum.
Among the architectural monuments of the Ancient Rome of particular interest are the spectacular buildings. The Largest of these is the Colosseum. The Colosseum is the most ambitious of extant ancient Roman architecture – a symbol of the glory of the Eternal City, beyond its size ever built in Rome amphitheaters. Within its walls were heard the echoes of gladiatorial battles, and later, when the stones of the Colosseum were squandered on the construction of medieval churches and palaces, it was replaced with the echoes of the hammers. Today, though dilapidated, the walls of the Colosseum still standing there, enticing to thousands of tourists. The Colosseum (originally called the Flavian amphitheater) was the brainchild of Emperor Vespasian (of the Flavian family), which in ‘ 72 was conceived to erect a monument in honor of a military triumph in the middle East.
After the romantic beauty of the ruins of forum and Coliseum to the greatness of the ancient grandeur of the Pantheon most clearly draws the appearance of the ancient city. Pantheon the only remaining in Rome to our days almost intact, the greatest of the ancient domed building height of 43 m. the Pantheon was built in 128, when Hadrian on the site of a similar temple of 27 BC, Agrippa erected a mark (an inscription), but in G. 110 destroyed by a lightning strike. The Pantheon consists of sixteen Corinthian columns ten meters high supporting the roof with triangular pediment. A portico with a gable roof serves as an entry into the Central building of the cylindrical form divided by niches, where formerly stood the statues of the gods. In the interior a circle is inserted whose diameter and height are the same (43.3 meters). The interior light comes through the holes in the dome.
The architectural appearance of Ancient Rome cannot be imagined without the triumphal arches, erected to commemorate the victories of the Romans in military campaigns. Triumphal arch — an architectural monument, consists of large porches. The arc de Triomphe are arranged at the entrance to the city at the end of streets, on the bridges on the main roads in honor of the winners or in memory of important events
Among the largest public buildings of Ancient Rome should be named the building of the Thermae ;. In Rome there were a great many. They served as a place of relaxation and entertainment, a visit is included in the daily life of the Romans.
III. Pinning is studied in class
And now let’s go over what you learned today in class? What did you like? What do you remember? Tell me, what you can see in our days the elements of Roman architecture (arches, vaults)
Conclusion . Roman architecture has left a rich legacy for posterity.