ancient

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The culture of Western Europe in the Middle ages

The culture of Western Europe in the Middle ages

For the first time the term “middle ages” were used by the Italian humanists in the fifteenth century calling so the time that separates them from the era of classical antiquity. The beginning of the middle ages is 476 – the year of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, ending up in different historiographical schools are considered to be either 1492 – discovery of America by Columbus, or 1517 – start of Protestant reformation in Germany, or 1640 – beginning of the bourgeois revolution in England. The conquest of the territory of the Western Roman Empire by barbarians in the V century led to the decline of ancient culture. The barbarians destroyed the city, destroyed the monuments of ancient art, library. The period from the end of IV century on the eighth century is referred to in the historiography of the “dark ages”, or “the period of great resettlement of peoples”.

The art of the Middle ages very different from the ancient: instead of perfect harmony – the appeal in the first place to the spiritual world, the contradiction between reality and the spiritual ideal.

The Christian religion has had a dominant influence on the development of medieval art (during the V-XI centuries. was the adoption of Christianity by virtually all the peoples of Europe). Christianity denied the ancient harmony of body and spirit, human and the earthly world. The main attention of the artists of the middle ages gave the world the hereafter, the art was considered as the Bible for the illiterate, as a means of familiarizing Continue reading

The most mysterious places on Earth

The most mysterious places on Earth

Stonehenge

Our world is full of mysteries, which is already many decades no one can solve. On site there are amazing places where there are mysterious accidents are mysterious buildings and unexplained characters, the appearance of which remains a mystery for many centuries. Many such places have been carefully researched by scientists and archaeologists, but these locations are so old that it is still not clear where they originate.

One of those mysterious structures on Earth – Stonehenge . located on Salisbury plain in Wiltshire, England. This is the most mysterious monument in the world is excited and, at the same time, a great deal of controversy among scholars and historians. Studies of this object lasted from the middle Ages.

Stonehenge looks like a stone building near London and consists of 56 small funeral “Aubrey holes” arranged in the shape of a circle. Presumably, this structure is only a remnant of a vast monument, which was badly destroyed by time, wars and disasters.

The pyramids and the Sphinx

Some scientists believe that Stonehenge was a great monument, located near the place of burial, and it was built by highly advanced ancient society, the other side argues that this old building Continue reading

Ancient fish bone from China

Ancient fish bone from China

Chinese paleontologists have discovered in Yunnan province (Yunnan) in the sediments belonging to the upper Silurian, in the layers of the age 418-419 million years, the fossilized remains of fish. The study findings showed that the fish belongs to the class of bony fish (Osteichthyes) and combines the characteristics of two subclasses – the ray-finned (Actinopterigii) and lobe-finned (Sarcopterygii). Paleontologists have named the fish Guiu (Guiyu oneiros).

The Chinese paleontologist Zhu Min (Min Zhu) and his colleagues from the Institute of vertebrate paleontology and paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP), China Academy of Sciences), devoted to the study of this fish, published in the Journal Nature.

According to modern views, from bony fish were almost all vertebrates, including, eventually, humans. By the way, do not confuse bone and bony fishes. We are all familiar bony fishes (Teleostei) arose in the Mesozoic and belong to the subclass of ray-finned fishes.

To the descendants of the ancient bony fish scientists classify all living clustertech animals except cartilaginous fishes – sharks, rays and chimeras. They stemmed from the evolutionary tree earlier. And here we are, in principle, can be considered distant descendants of the Silurian bony fish.

Unfortunately, the early stage of this evolutionary process is still not well understood., Continue reading

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The book in stone
The book in stone. The architect of the new Cathedral of Rheims was erected a Grand structure, the mainstream at this time in Europe the Gothic style. This name, sneering…

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Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome
Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome Objective: to acquaint students with the architecture of Ancient Rome, the varieties of buildings and their purpose, continue to develop cognitive abilities of students, the…

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Mysterious structures
Great buildings, hidden on the seabed A few years ago half a mile from the shore of the Corinthian Gulf under a layer of silt were found fragments of buildings.…

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