Underground city near Kiev

Underground city near Kiev

In Kiev the cave found a network of secret underground passageways, man-made caves, hiding places, traps, fortifications. Except that the catacombs of ancient Rome, or Paris catacombs can in any way be compared with the caves of Kiev.

Close to town, which we know is there is another underground Kyiv. which hides thousands of secrets. Archaeologists know of more than three hundred of the Kiev catacombs.

“We have a blueprint, there is hope that the oldest underground structure originated in the territory of the city of Kiev during the time of the Chalcolithic. This is the period of transition from the stone age to the age of metals — and the entrance to these caves is just in the yard of one of houses”, — said the doctor of historical Sciences Timur Bobrovsky.

900 years completely intact — in the prestigious district of Kiev — large construction — Zverinetska the entrance to the cave. The cave is almost not changed its appearance over the centuries, reports TSN.

Researcher of the Kiev underground Vladislav woodpeckers holds one of the ancient underground caves of Kiev. An abandoned monastery located here, older than the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra.

Zverinetska the caves are unique in themselves. But there is a place — actually a special — the underground Church. It is difficult to say how old she is, but archaeologists say it was built in ancient period. And here is a symbol, Continue reading



Hydroelectric power plant (HPP) is a set of complex hydraulic structures and equipment. Its purpose is to convert energy of water flow into electrical energy. Hydraulic turbine is the main engine for HEP. With its help, the energy of water moving under pressure is transformed into mechanical energy of rotation, which then, via the electric generator is converted into electrical energy.

The most important hydraulic structure – the dam. It is built across the river from shore to shore and overlaps the channel of the river, preventing the free flow of its waters. Blocked river, dam on one of its side holds water at a higher level than the other, creating a differential in the levels and thereby increasing its energy. Because the energy of falling water is much greater than the energy of calmly running water. The dam built to use water power and electricity generation, for the detention of flood water (irrigation fields), for water supply of large cities, improving the navigation of the rivers. Dams are deaf, under any circumstances, not passing water from the high level to the lower, and spillway allowing overflow of water through the dam crest.

The dam, which is part of the hydroelectric – water drain. In her body – water-holes, through which water from the upper level is reset to bottom. The falling water rotates the hydraulic turbine Continue reading

Gothic cathedrals


From the XII century Romanesque style gradually became replaced with a new style – Gothic.

This period in the development of medieval art in the territories of Central, Western and Eastern (part) of Europe occurred in the XII-XVI centuries. Initially the term “Gothic” refers to architecture, but he gradually embraced almost all forms of art.

The history of the style

Gothic began their March across Europe from the middle of the XII century with France. From XIII century it had already spread to the territory of modern England, Austria, Germany, Spain, Czech Republic.

Gothic Cathedral in Coutances (France)

To Italy the Gothic style came somewhat modified, it is called: “Italian Gothic”. And Eastern Europe adopted this style later and said goodbye to him later – in the XVI century.

While talking about the farewell to the Gothic, perhaps, be wrong: in the middle of the XIX century (this period was called the period of eclecticism – a mixture of styles) architecture often has to resort to the elements of the Gothic, and later started talking about the neo-Gothic style. The Gothic revival (the”new Gothic”) emerged in England in the 40-ies of the XVIII century – it was the revival of the forms and design features of the medieval Gothic.

In the early nineteenth century coined the term “Gothic novel”, which meant the literary genre of the romantic era Continue reading

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