Ancient fish bone from China

Ancient fish bone from China

Chinese paleontologists have discovered in Yunnan province (Yunnan) in the sediments belonging to the upper Silurian, in the layers of the age 418-419 million years, the fossilized remains of fish. The study findings showed that the fish belongs to the class of bony fish (Osteichthyes) and combines the characteristics of two subclasses – the ray-finned (Actinopterigii) and lobe-finned (Sarcopterygii). Paleontologists have named the fish Guiu (Guiyu oneiros).

The Chinese paleontologist Zhu Min (Min Zhu) and his colleagues from the Institute of vertebrate paleontology and paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP), China Academy of Sciences), devoted to the study of this fish, published in the Journal Nature.

According to modern views, from bony fish were almost all vertebrates, including, eventually, humans. By the way, do not confuse bone and bony fishes. We are all familiar bony fishes (Teleostei) arose in the Mesozoic and belong to the subclass of ray-finned fishes.

To the descendants of the ancient bony fish scientists classify all living clustertech animals except cartilaginous fishes – sharks, rays and chimeras. They stemmed from the evolutionary tree earlier. And here we are, in principle, can be considered distant descendants of the Silurian bony fish.

Unfortunately, the early stage of this evolutionary process is still not well understood., Continue reading

Megalithic temples of Hagar

Turofed — travel

Megalithic temples of Hagar and Ggantija.

Among other merits before history, the Maltese archipelago is world famous for the fact that the most ancient man-made structures on Earth are located here. This is the megalithic temples.

Hagar “standing stones (to) worship” – a megalithic temple complex on the island of Malta. Refers to the phase of Ggantija Maltese ancient history (3600-3200 BC).

The temple of Hagar Qim stands on a hilltop, with views of the sea and the islet of Filfla (Filfla). The temple is a single temple structure, although it is unclear whether it was built originally as four or pateamine structure. In fact, this religious building from the huge raw or semi-processed stone blocks, which include dolmens (funerary box, covered with a massive flat slab), and menhirs (single standing stones) and cromlechs (circular fence). Maltese megaliths are dolmens.

The fact that all the buildings were built of stone blocks, the size of which is 8 meters long and weighs tens of tons. Still, it remains a mystery how could the people of that era, which were known only primitive tools, to create such a large building material whole complexes of buildings, and even to lay the stones so tightly that they are no cracks. However, Continue reading

Stone Grave


Stone grave under Melitopol (Ukraine) is one of the oldest temple complexes. It is not just a hill of stone slabs, resembling a grave, but this is a mass grave of dozens of Nations.

Stone Grave – most researchers suggest that it was a natural formation. Scientists suggest that it appeared as follows. Monolithic Sandstone shallow so-called Sarmatian sea slipped on the sand in the cavity, washed by the river, the path split into many boulders. But this is the only in the world of education.

Later, during the Pontian sea, has formed the limestone deposits.

The sea has left, reigned in the desert. Subsequently, it formed the basin of the river that penetrated deep into the earth, and the iron and manganese oxides left on the surface of the sand, forming a stony rock. So gradually arose at this place the Sandstone monolith.

During the melting of the glacier on the North (the border was near present-day Dnepropetrovsk), “big water” flowing down to the South, formed the valleys of the rivers and of the so-called “amphitheater” – huge vimini in the right Bank of the great Breast. They appeared as a result of the rotary movement of a huge mass of water, and due to the natural deepening of the riverbed Dairy huge island Continue reading

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