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Ancient fish bone from China

Ancient fish bone from China

Chinese paleontologists have discovered in Yunnan province (Yunnan) in the sediments belonging to the upper Silurian, in the layers of the age 418-419 million years, the fossilized remains of fish. The study findings showed that the fish belongs to the class of bony fish (Osteichthyes) and combines the characteristics of two subclasses – the ray-finned (Actinopterigii) and lobe-finned (Sarcopterygii). Paleontologists have named the fish Guiu (Guiyu oneiros).

The Chinese paleontologist Zhu Min (Min Zhu) and his colleagues from the Institute of vertebrate paleontology and paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP), China Academy of Sciences), devoted to the study of this fish, published in the Journal Nature.

According to modern views, from bony fish were almost all vertebrates, including, eventually, humans. By the way, do not confuse bone and bony fishes. We are all familiar bony fishes (Teleostei) arose in the Mesozoic and belong to the subclass of ray-finned fishes.

To the descendants of the ancient bony fish scientists classify all living clustertech animals except cartilaginous fishes – sharks, rays and chimeras. They stemmed from the evolutionary tree earlier. And here we are, in principle, can be considered distant descendants of the Silurian bony fish.

Unfortunately, the early stage of this evolutionary process is still not well understood., Continue reading

Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome

Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome

Objective: to acquaint students with the architecture of Ancient Rome, the varieties of buildings and their purpose, continue to develop cognitive abilities of students, the ability to work with sources of information, highlight the main, to raise interest, a sense of respect and admiration for Roman building technology and architecture.

New words . forum (location of architectural structures in a strict order on a huge quadrangular areas); aqueducts (water pipes); viaducts (rock bridges); a pilaster (a flat vertical projection on the surface of the walls); caissons (square indentations, which is divided by a hemispherical ceiling of a dome), Thermae (public baths).

The course of the lesson

I. Organizational moment

Art culture of Ancient Rome left mankind a rich legacy.

The theme of our lesson “the Architectural achievements of Ancient Rome”. In class we will learn the architecture of Ancient Rome, the varieties of buildings and their purpose, construction and material innovations in architecture.

II. New theme

The architecture of Ancient Rome as distinctive Continue reading

Megalithic temples of Hagar

Turofed — travel

Megalithic temples of Hagar and Ggantija.

Among other merits before history, the Maltese archipelago is world famous for the fact that the most ancient man-made structures on Earth are located here. This is the megalithic temples.

Hagar “standing stones (to) worship” – a megalithic temple complex on the island of Malta. Refers to the phase of Ggantija Maltese ancient history (3600-3200 BC).

The temple of Hagar Qim stands on a hilltop, with views of the sea and the islet of Filfla (Filfla). The temple is a single temple structure, although it is unclear whether it was built originally as four or pateamine structure. In fact, this religious building from the huge raw or semi-processed stone blocks, which include dolmens (funerary box, covered with a massive flat slab), and menhirs (single standing stones) and cromlechs (circular fence). Maltese megaliths are dolmens.

The fact that all the buildings were built of stone blocks, the size of which is 8 meters long and weighs tens of tons. Still, it remains a mystery how could the people of that era, which were known only primitive tools, to create such a large building material whole complexes of buildings, and even to lay the stones so tightly that they are no cracks. However, Continue reading

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